Union of Aviation Industrialists of Russia held its meeting at the test airfield Orlovka on November 29, 2018
The Air Navigation Committee of the Union of Aviation Industrialists of Russia chaired by Mikhail Kizilov held its meeting on November 29, 2018 at the test airfield Orlovka in Tver region within the Digital Sky: Time of Drones and Regions conference.
The representatives of the Ministry of Transport of Russia, ICAO, IATA, State Research Institute of Civil Aviation, leading development companies, manufacturers and users of unmanned aircraft (hereinafter UAV), small aircraft associations and industry experts have attended the business program of the conference. The main issues raised during the discussion touched upon the regulating issues of the UAVs integration into the common airspace from the legislative point of view.
The solutions for joint safe flights of unmanned and manned aircraft in common airspace were presented to the conference participants and the press. The basis of the solution for the integration of UAVs and General aviation into the non-segregated airspace was the first certified according to Russian requirements multilateration surveillance system (MLAT) Almanac, providing high-precision air traffic monitoring during continuous observation from 0 to 20 000 meters altitude, depending on the geometry of the station location. The system includes an innovative ultra-compact onboard transponder Colibri ADS-B 1090 ES in/out for small and unmanned aircraft, which allows to provide real-time information about the air situation to the ground services and on board. Information output is provided on the latest unified automation system Virtuoso with an integrated airfield video surveillance function.
All equipment of the new solution for flexible UAV integration into the common airspace is developed by the Russian aviation industry.
During the Air Navigation Committee meeting the system tests in Orlovka confirmed reliability and high availability of ADS-B 1090ES data link adopted by the Ministry of Transport as a unified standard for the integration of UAV and all the general aviation into the non-segregated airspace.
It is worth noting that the unified 1090ES standard implementation allows executing situational awareness for all air traffic participants, including remote pilots, and does not require special transponders installation on airliners, what would be required if other data transmission lines were introduced.
Two data lines are used in the world today – 1090ES and UAT. The latter operates historically only in the United States, where it was possible to achieve frequency compatibility of the UAT data link due to the specifics of the 1090ES technology. There is also a third format – VDL-4, which is not accepted as a standard in any country in the world.
The VDL-4 data link was developed in Sweden in the 1980s and has never been put into operation in any country in the world. The disadvantages of the VDL-4 include problems with electromagnetic compatibility in the FM band, an unallocated frequency range, the inability to use signals in multi-position surveillance systems and low data transfer rates for modern air navigation.
The decisions of the 11th ICAO International Conference in 2003 established that the 1090 ES data link would be adopted as the main solution for implementation in international practice to ensure the air space interoperability. The main advantages are: a single communication line with a dedicated frequency range, the presence of airborne antenna-feeder systems, the absence of problems with electromagnetic compatibility, the usability for independent coordinates measurement.
Over the years of ADS-B 1090 ES trial operation in the United States, Europe and Australia, terabytes of data have been accumulated, which allowed to evaluate this technology advantages and disadvantages. In fact, the Russian Federation has also implemented the world's experience in using ADS-B, which saves significant funds. The 1090 ES data transmission line has a reserve of signal functionality that will allow increasing the radio channel throughput several times (such work is being carried out at the international level), as well as the availability of reserved formats that allow for encryption when transmitting data over the 1090 ES channel.
In order to ensure flight safety, aircraft of all types: "large", "small" and unmanned must be equipped with technical means ensuring compatibility of existing ground-based surveillance systems in the single ATM system (secondary RADAR, ADS-B/MLAT) and airborne collision prevention systems (TCAS II/ ACAS-Xa/o) as well as compatibility of future means ensuring the integration of UAVs (ACAS-Xu, DAA). The introduction of the unified 1090 ES standard will help solve the challenges facing Russian and global aviation.